How can we claim to measure intelligence when we cannot even agree on a definition of this elusive concept? Considering this question, Keogh first surveys the literature — Plato, Piaget, Descartes, Darwin and other — drawing the fundamental ideas in the fields of philosophy, psychology, and biology. He also includes a useful glossary of terms to orient readers. Despite the heavy subject matter, Keogh write in a clear manner and employs accessible metaphors. “The results of analysis of a bucket of water taken from a river will not tell us the speed of flowing water, the depth or breath of the river or the ingredients contained in the rest of the water in that river. Similarly, the results of an intelligence test will not confirm the ability of the person to create, choose, imagine and respond to novel or unexpected situations and events. “The author rejects the intelligence Quotient (IQ) and instead proposes a “psycho-behavioural profile,” which would include assessments of memory, perception, emotion, empathy and a wide array of skills. Perhaps the author’s most evocative suggestion is to reserve time in a classroom for students “to invent, compose and create…to think, analyze, reflect and daydream.” In this manner, students are free to make connections, synthesize material and express themselves in a variety of formats. Keogh lauds the pedagogical shift from the traditional, teacher-centred instruction to more student-centred approaches, which take into consideration the unique interests of each pupil and allow him or her to play a more active, individualized role in the learning process. Even where music education and arts programs still exist, he writes, there classes usually entail “a whole group of children doing the same type of task at the same time.” A solid foundation for future examinations of how to modify existing curricula in orders to better serve the educational needs of children.